Thursday, May 04, 2017

PhD Scholarships at UCD School of Economics

UCD School of Economics is pleased to announce a call for applications for the 2017-18 PhD Scholarship scheme. The aim of the scheme is to attract applicants of the highest academic standards to participate in the UCD School of Economics PhD programme (details here) and provide them with the training, experience and mentorship necessary to their professional development.

These PhD Scholarships will comprise an annual tax-free annual stipend of between €12,000 and €15,000 plus a full waiver of fees. The scheme is open to both new applicants and existing PhD students, with the understanding that the stipend and fee waiver will continue to be provided to students up to and including their fourth year of PhD studies, subject to their continuing to make satisfactory progress in their studies and meeting the terms and requirements of their scholarship.

Students in receipt of a Scholarship are required to work as tutors in either undergraduate or graduate modules taught by the School of Economics. This will allow PhD students to develop the practical application of their academic skills by ongoing training and experience of tutorial teaching, assessment and pedagogical development. This taught component will amount to no more than 50 hours of teaching during each of our 12-week teaching semesters.

A selection board of School of Economics faculty members will review applications and make its recommendations on selection to the Head of School. Applications will be evaluated and ranked by the Selection Board according to the following criteria:
Academic excellence (transcripts, previous research experience, etc.)
The academic testament of referees;
Quality and clarity of the research proposal;
Fit with the research strengths of the School;
Teaching potential (past teaching experience, English proficiency, etc.);
Availability of other funding to applicant (such as Irish Research Council awards).

Complete applications must be submitted on or before 18 May 2017. New applicants who are short-listed for a scholarship will then be contacting for a short interview, either in person, via phone, or via computer (such as Skype). The school will then conduct interviews with each finalist, either in person, via phone, or via the computer (such as Skype). Scholarships will be awarded on approximately May 31, 2017. Successful applicants have until 15 June 2017 to notify the school of their decision whether or not to accept the scholarship. Additional scholarships may be awarded in June or July depending on availability.

For students who are unsuccessful in applying for a PhD scholarship, the school also offers other forms of financial assistance, including fee waivers, hourly tutoring contracts, and marking exams.

If you are interested in applying for these scholarships, please review the associated terms and conditions carefully.

Click here for the application form. Completed forms should be emailed to economics@ucd.ie

Click here for the terms and conditions for the scholarships.

Wednesday, May 03, 2017

Irish Revenue Randomised Trials

This month the Irish Revenue Commissioners (responsible for tax administration) published the results of 20 randomised trials they have conducted in the area of behavioural design. This is a significant report in terms of Irish public policy and also contributes to the growing international literature in this area. A summary of the report is below. 
While audit and other risk management interventions are effective compliance tools, they can be expensive and time consuming for both Revenue and taxpayers. Targeted treatments using behavioural science can be a complementary and cost-effective tool to improve compliance. A summary of key findings across four behavioural insights is below. 
Deterrence: Deterrence strategies (e.g., highlighting possible sanctions) dissuade taxpayers from non-compliant behaviour. The research confirms that deterrent effects significantly improve taxpayer compliance, particularly when combined with other insights. They impact different taxpayer segments differently. 
Simplification and Salience: Compliance or other behaviours can be enhanced through simpler presentation of information and by drawing attention to key details. For tax administrations, this may involve highlighting the third-party information held, for example through correspondence or the pre-filling of tax returns. Information in any communications should be presented in the most clear and simple way possible, including bolding and centred text. 
Personalisation: International research has shown the potential of more personalised correspondence, which is increasingly becoming a possibility given technological advancements. Revenue trials confirm that personalisation leads to greater and quicker engagement, especially when multiple elements of personalisation are applied. 
Social Norms: The behaviour of others can influence an individual’s choices. Revenue research finds that social norms are generally not effective at influencing behaviour. However, there is limited evidence indicating that these may improve taxpayer compliance when combined with other insights. 
According to a meta-analysis, which weights the result of 20 trials by sample size, the most effective insights tend to be deterrence (+8.0% improvement in targeted behaviour), personalisation (+4.0%) simplification and salience (+3.3%) and social norms (-1.6%). The wording and design of communications can affect taxpayer compliance. Even seemingly insignificant changes to correspondence can significantly change behaviour. While these lessons have mainly been learned from letters, they should be considered in any Revenue communication with taxpayers.

Sunday, April 30, 2017

Behavioural Economics Historical Reference Works

The purpose of this post (which I am updating from time to time) is to start a discussion online and in the research centre about historical works (say pre-1960) that are most worthwhile to read for people interested in contemporary behavioural science and behavioural economics debates. The remit is probably too broad to be wholly coherent but if it leads to some good suggestions for reading that people had not considered before then it is worth doing. Works from centuries or millenia before often have a way of having a recurring influence on modern fields not least evidenced by the recent renewed interest in Aristotle and Greek concepts of well-being in the modern literature. Would be good to get suggestions from people in the comments, by email, in person.

Aristotle's Nichomachean Ethics is clearly a key reference work from antiquity. Will add more on this at a later stage.

Nico Machiavelli's The Prince contains a wealth of insights into influence in the context of complex governance issues.

Adam Smith's The Theory of Moral Sentiments. See also this article on Adam Smith's pedigree as a behavioural economist. A more general tour of the Scottish Enlightenment's role in the development of disciplines such as Economics would be interesting for a future post and/or walking tour. David Hume's Treatise on Human Nature contains a wealth of ideas that are relevant to modern academic debates on decision making, valuation, causality and so on. See this link for a short blogpost I wrote on the Treatise and modern behavioural economics. Thanks to @cathyby on twitter for repeated reminders on the importance of Francis Hutcheson and also the recommendation to include Bernard De Mandeville. The latter's Fable of The Bees is cited across many areas of Economics.

Pretty much anything from JS Mill in particular On LibertyThe Principles of Political Economy and Utilitarianism. Obviously also Bentham.

Emile Durkheim is a forerunner of many literatures relevant to readers here. A very useful UChicago webpage on his work here.

Simmel's Philosophy of Money is often  cited as a historical reference in modern papers on economic psychology. It deals with a staggering array of questions on the philosophy and implications of using money as the medium of exchange.

Schumpeter's History of Economic Analysis would be one of my desert island books. I once ran an informal book club over several sessions on this work. Contains a wealth of information on the many interesting characters that populated debates on issues such as the correct notion of utility over the centuries.

From Schumpeter, the importance of the German Cameralist movement becomes apparent in particular Johann Justi. Many elements of modern thinking about the state improving the health and welfare of citizens in an economic framework come from this movement. Thanks to Charles Larkin for pointing out to me the importance of Wilhelm Roscher in the development of German historical and institutional thought. The development of Christian social economic thinking through the late 1800s and 1900s is an area that contains a huge degree of historical relevance in terms of debates about the role of state intervention. The theological context is obviously not present in modern BE debates but that does not reduce the significance of these works. The development of various forms of European social economic thinking throughout the 20th century sets a vital historical context for understanding how many European countries established their social democracies and in the works that formed the intellectual backdrop of this there are many debates about the freedom and dignity of the individual set against the wider public welfare and profit and innovation in a capitalist system.

Edgeworth's Mathematical Psychics is a classic work and is eerily relevant to modern debates about decision-making despite being published in 1881.

Lewin "Economics and Psychology: Lessons for Our Own Day From the Early Twentieth Century" documents the interaction between the development of neo-classical marginalist economics and the development of psychology as a separate discipline. See also Bruni and Sugden's 2007 EJ article argues for the historical importance of Pareto in severing the link between economics and psychology.
This article explores parallels between the debate prompted by Pareto's reformulation of choice theory at the beginning of the twentieth century and current controversies about the status of behavioural economics. Before Pareto's reformulation, neoclassical economics was based on theoretical and experimental psychology, as behavioural economics now is. Current ‘discovered preference’ defences of rational-choice theory echo arguments made by Pareto. Both treat economics as a separate science of rational choice, independent of psychology. Both confront two fundamental problems: to find a defensible definition of the domain of economics, and to justify the assumption that preferences are consistent and stable.
William James' The Principles of Psychology is often regarded as the first psychology textbook. Again, time-permitting, a later post on contemporaries of James such as Wundt and Fechner would yield a number of relevant works.

Freud's distrust of empirical analysis puts him at odds with a lot of modern methodological thinking. But his books are surely worth reading for any thinking person and the concepts he grappled with have obvious resonance with behavioural economics models of human behaviour.

Frank H, Knight's classic "Risk, Uncertainty and Profit" provides ideas on the role of uncertainty in economics that continue to be highly relevant.

Keynes' General Theory is a tough read in places but often reads very like what is beginning to be called behavioural macro.

Karl Polanyi's "The Great Transformation" is a key work across several interdisciplinary disciplines in Economics. It contains a vast range of insights into the development of market societies and the psychological, cultural, and other aspects of market behaviour.

The work of Maurice Allais was written exclusively in French and not widely translated making it all the more remarkable he was awarded the Nobel Prize in 1988. A study of Allais would require a lot of time, patience and linguistic ability but he is clearly an important figure in the history of economic thought relevant to behavioural economics. Paul Samuelson famously stated that “Had Allais's earliest writings been in English, a generation of economic theory would have taken a different course.

As much a warning about excess as anything else, Watson (1913) "Psychology as the Behaviorist Views it" is the classic statement of the behaviourist view of psychology.

Frederick et al's 2002 summary of the literature on time discounting provides an exceptionally useful historical background to the development of ideas in this area from the 1800s onwards.

Veblen's "Theory of the Leisure class" is a classic work on many aspects of consumption and leisure that is still quite regularly cited.

Camerer/Loewenstein's summary of behavioural economics has some great historical examples.

The work of George Katona at the Survey Research Centre at Michigan and the work of Herbert Simon at Carnegie-Mellon is described in this 2003 Journal of Socio-economics article by Hamid Hosseini. The article also provides information and links to a range of other interesting papers and contributions from the first half of the 20th century. The work of Katona and Simon set the foundation of 20th century  behavioural economics. I will add more at a later stage about developments in behavioural economics in the 1950s and 1960s as these are obviously key to understanding the intellectual climate that the great work of people like Kahneman and Tversky emerged from.

Post-war it would be good to talk further about the debates surrounding the development of general equilibrium theory in Economics and the clash between behaviourism and the cognitive revolution in Psychology. Clearly in that period emerges the main building blocks of what was to become behavioural economics. 

Wednesday, April 26, 2017

Researcher Vacancies at UCD

See below for two research posts working with colleagues at UCD:

(i) Vacancy for Research Scientist in UCD; we are seeking a researcher to contribute to an Irish Research Council (Research for Policy & Society) funded project about understanding well-owners perceptions and awareness of flooding, and informing policy to increase preparedness to reduce the risks of infectious disease outbreaks. Masters or PhD with training/experience in qualitative and/or quantitative research methods required. Salary will reflect qualification and experience. Closing date for application May 3rd. Email eoin.oneill@ucd.ie for further information. Check out the postion at http://www.ucd.ie/hr/jobvacancies/ Job Ref : 009243

(ii) A postdoctoral research fellow in economics is sought to carry out research in energy technology adoption and the societal costs and benefits of a key future energy technology, residential ground source heat pumps (GSHPs), for the case of Ireland. The researcher will be part of the School of Economics in Belfield, UCD.The aim of the project is to carry out an economic assessment of the deployment of GSHPs in Ireland and develop an appropriate policy strategy. The objectives of the project are to:• Develop methodologies to model the potential uptake of GSHP in the residential sector;• Assess the market and economic value of scenarios of various shares of GSHPs;• Advance evidence-based policy recommendations on the development of geothermal energy as part of the renewable energy mix in Ireland. Salary: €34,975 - €42,181 per annum Appointment on the above range will be dependent on qualifications and experience. Prior to application, further information (including application procedure) should be obtained from the UCD Job Vacancies website: http://www.ucd.ie/hr/jobvacancies.

Friday, April 21, 2017

2017 UCD PhD Conference in Behavioural Science


2017  PhD Conference in Behavioural Science 

 Thursday, the 30th of November 2017
 
UCD Geary Institute for Public Policy



The UCD Geary Institute for Public Policy is pleased to announce our PhD Student Conference in Behavioural Science for 2017 in collaboration with the Stirling University Management School. This continues two successful annual events held at Stirling. For information about last year's PhD conference click here. The PhD conference will be held at University College Dublin on November 30th and will be followed by the 10th annual Irish economics and psychology conference on December 1st. Attendees to the PhD conference on November 30th are also welcome to attend the December 1 workshop. Our keynote speakers will be Professor Don Ross (UCC) and Professor Jennifer Sheehy Skeffington (LSE). 

The 2017 PhD Conference aims to give PhD students in Behavioural Science the opportunity to meet other researchers, to present their work, and get feedback from peers and researchers in the field. The PhD conference will deal with all areas of behavioural science (or behavioural economics, economic psychology, judgement and decision making, depending on your terminological preference). Topics include, but are not limited to
  • Nudging and Behavioural Policies 
  • Evaluation of Behavioural Policies
  • Mechanisms of Behavioural Interventions
  • Inter-temporal Choice
  • Self-control
  • Risk Preferences
  • Social Preferences
  • Heuristics
  • Personality and Economics
  • Subjective Well-Being
  • Identity in Economics
  • Emotions and Decision Making 
  • Behavioural Medicine
  • Early Influences on Later Life Outcomes
  • Behavioural Science and the Labour Market
  • Research Methods in Behavioural Science 
Speakers will present their research followed by a discussion. There will be no conference fee and a social dinner will be provided for attendees on the evening of November 30th. Please go to this link to submit an abstract for the conference. 
  • September 1: Abstract submission deadline (up to 500 words).
  • September 10: Notification of acceptance.
We look forward to welcoming you to Dublin. If you have questions, feel free to send an email to liam.delaney@ucd.ie 

Stirling Workshop on Self-Control and Public Policy September 15th

This workshop will examine the economics and psychology of self-control, in particular exploring the relevance of the emerging literature for development of public policy in health, education, and other areas. The workshop will take place in Stirling University on September 15th. Further details will be made available here shortly.

Sunday, April 16, 2017

Journal of Behavioural Economics for Policy

The first issue of the new Journal of Behavioural Economics for Policy is available here, See the papers below. Along with the new Behavioral Public Policy journal mentioned in the previous post, this makes a substantial addition to the development of this field.

Behavioral economics: from advising organizations to nudging individuals(90 kB)
Floris Heukelom, Esther-Mirjam Sent | JBEP 1(1) Article

Requiring choice is a form of paternalism (79 kB)
Cass R. Sunstein | JBEP 1(1) Article

An unhealthy attitude? New insight into the modest effects of the NLEA (294 kB)
Mark Patterson, Saurabh Bhargava, George Loewenstein | JBEP 1(1) Article

Experts in policy land - Insights from behavioral economics on improving experts’ advice for policy-makers (84 kB)
Michelle Baddeley | JBEP 1(1) Article

Eliciting real-life social networks: a guided tour (647 kB)
Pablo Brañas-Garza, Natalia Jiménez, Giovanni Ponti | JBEP 1(1) Article

Policy making with behavioral insight (138 kB)
Shabnam Mousavi, Reza Kheirandish | JBEP 1(1) Article

Tax compliance and information provision - A field experiment with small firms(147 kB)
Philipp Doerrenberg, Jan Schmitz | JBEP 1(1) Article

Policy consequences of pay-for-performance and crowding-out (87 kB)
Bruno Frey | JBEP 1(1) Article

To support trust and trustworthiness: punish, communicate, both, neither?(130 kB)
Rattaphon Wuthisatian, Mark Pingle, Mark Nichols | JBEP 1(1) Article

Happiness and economics: insights for policy from the new ‘science’ of well-being (96 kB)
Carol Graham | JBEP 1(1) Article

Behavioral economics and austrian economics: Lessons for policy and the prospects of nudges (94 kB)
Roberta Muramatsu, Fabio Barbieri | JBEP 1(1) Article